One of the best available methods for maintaining your bicycle in accurate and apposite standards is to take care of the individual bike parts properly, rather than taking the whole bicycle as one entity; of course you must take care of your bicycle as a whole unit, but you will have to do that by taking care of all the specific parts in separate ways. For maintaining the uniqueness and worth of each constituent part, you will have to learn about the basic functions of that part in detail. It should be clearly understood that not even a single component is either similar in shape or character nor does the same function; indeed all bike parts are disparate and have entirely different functions to do.
Which are the most significant and unavoidable bike parts? The answer to this question is quite simple and straightforward. There is none of such kind or in other words all parts have got an equal and important role to do, as far as the overall working of a bicycle is concerned. Certain bike parts have got more than one constituent parts also; for example, if you can take the brake-system of a bicycle you will be able to see that even though it can be taken as a single bike part, it has got different divisions like brake cables or hoses and brake levers. There are even different types of brake-systems itself like disc brakes, v-brakes, cantilever brakes and road-brakes.
Some of the other bike parts are bottom bracket, crankset, cassette, chain-rings, chain, derailleurs, frame, fork, headset, pedals, grips, handlebar, rims, seat clamp, saddle, spider, spindle spokes, stem, tyres and tubes. Once you buy a bike to your liking, the next task which you have to attend is to learn about the different bike parts; if you are familiar with your bike parts you will be able to maintain your bicycle appropriately.